Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy
USIP Press Books
June 1993
208 pp., 6" x 9"
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George undertakes an ambitious task in Bridging the Gap and does a more-than-creditable job in accomplishing it. . . . George carefully analyzes U.S. policy towards Iraq from 1988 through 1991. . . . He offers six implications for scholarly research and policymaking.

American Political Science Review
Bridging the gap that separates the two cultures of academia and policymaking is the central purpose of this pathbreaking study. George examines six U.S. strategies toward Iraq in 1988-1991. He urges policymakers to make better use of scholarly knowledge and challenges scholars to develop the types of knowledge that can be employed effectively by policymakers.

Alexander L. George was professor emeritus at Stanford University in 1993. He is the author or editor of fourteen books.


  • Part One: The Gap betweeen Knowledge and Action
  • The Two Cultures of Academia and Policymaking
  • The Role of Knowledge in Policymaking
  • Part Two: The Inadequate Knowledge Base for U.S. Policy toward Iraq, 1988-91
  • Outcomes of U.S. Strategies toward Iraq
  • Reforming Outlaw States and Rogue Leaders
  • Appeasement as a Strategy for Conflict Avoidance
  • Why Deterrence and Reassurance Sometimes Fail
  • The Failure to Coerce Saddam Hussein
  • War Termination: Integrating Military and Political Objectives
  • Part Three: The Bridge between Knowledge and Action
  • Contemporary International Relations Theory
  • Types of Knowledge for Policymaking
  • Summary and Conclusions

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