Major General Andrew Mackay (ret.), CEO and founder of Complexas Ltd. and APPLIform Ltd., has been involved in the stabilization of fragile and conflict afflicted states throughout his career. His expertise includes security sector reform, governance, rule of law, sustainable development, and fair elections. Since retiring from active military service in 2011, Mackay has worked predominantly in Africa on a wide variety of infrastructure and trade-enabling projects with governments, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, and multinational companies. Previously, he commanded British Forces in Afghanistan in 2007 and 2008, designing and delivering interagency programs to more fully understand and benefit alienated communities, offering them a stake in the future of their district, province, and the Afghan state. Joining the British Army in 1981, Mackay then served in Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Kosovo, Lebanon, Iraq, and Afghanistan. In Bosnia, he worked within the OSCE as the deputy director of the Joint Elections Operation Centre. In Kosovo, he served in the UN Mission Team as head of the Advisory Unit on Security. In Baghdad, he set up and commanded the Civilian Police Assistance Training Team, creating a budget of $1.5 billion to organize, train, equip, and mentor the nascent Ministry of Interior and more than 150,000 Iraqi police. Mackay is coauthor of Behavioural Conflict: Why Understanding People and Their Motivations Will Prove Decisive in Future Conflict (2012).