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"In many ways the Gulf War has been a disaster for the Arab World" says the author of this fact-filled, carefully balanced, and yet provocative study.
Drawing on a wide range of Arabic and Western sources and his own experiences, and providing in-depth comparisons of six key Arab states--Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia--Faour challenges the notion that Desert Storm solved more problems than it created. The human costs, he demonstrates have been appalling. The economic costs have likewise been enormous. And the already precarious state of inter-Arab relations has atomized, with old disputes reviving and new antipathies thriving.
What the Gulf War did not change was the potential for political instability. Although authoritarian regimes remained intact, the war both spurred popular demands for democracy and encouraged militant Islamic movements.
The book functions as a reliable overall introduction and guide to international Arab politics.
Nine experts examine the East-West arms control experience to identify lessons that could be applied to the Middle East. The authors pinpoint specific near-term actions, particularly confidence-and-security-building measures, that might be explored now, whether or not they are linked to formal peace negotiations.
Each chapter pairs a co-author who has detailed knowledge of a particular East-West arms control approach with a co-author who has extensive experience in the Middle East Region.
Written in clear, jargon-free prose, this book will be especially useful to Middle East specialists and students of arms control as well as readers with a general interest in Middle East Affairs.
Taking an in-depth look at cases of the two Germanys, the United States and China, and Israel and Egypt, Armstrong examines why initiatives by Brandt, Nixon/Carter and Mao, and Sadat and Begin succeeded where previous attempts at rapprochement had failed.
The book looks first at the available theory and then at rapprochemnet in practice. Were there, the author asks, similarities between the three cases in terms of the prevailing international circumstances, the strategies and tactics adopted in the pursuit of improved relations, and the formal negotiations that ushered in the new relationships? Armstrong concludes that some underlying principles did indeed govern the shift from mutual antagonism to mutual acceptance--principles that may apply equally in today's post-Cold War world.
Bridging the gap that separates the two cultures of academia and policymaking is the central purpose of this pathbreaking study. George examines six U.S. strategies toward Iraq in 1988-1991. He urges policymakers to make better use of scholarly knowledge and challenges scholars to develop the types of knowledge that can be employed effectively by policymakers.
Shortly before the Middle East peace talks began in November 1991, the United States Institute of Peace conducted a four-day simulation of what was about to unfold in the diplomatic dialogue between two enemy countries, Israel and Syria, whose representatives had never before sat together.
This volume presents a description of that exercise and its implications for peacemaking and conflict resolution in the Middle East, a discussion of simulations and their utility for diplomats and for the field of conflict resolution, and a discussion among the participants of prospects for the overall Middle East peace negotiations.
Preface by Abiodun Williams
Policymakers and activists in the United States, Europe, and the Muslim world today face a growing challenge of how to prevent disputes now woven into the fabric of Western-Muslim relations from splintering destabilizing political communities. Conflict, Identity, and Reform in the Muslim World highlights the challenges that escalating identity conflicts within Muslim-majority states pose for both the Muslim world and for the West, an issue that has received scant attention in policy and academic circles.
This reader, which includes commissioned essays as well as work previously published or sponsored by the United States Institute of Peace (USIP), gathers in one place the latest thinking and contending analyses from a talented group of contributors. These international scholar-activists bring diverse normative, analytical, and disciplinary interests to their work. A product of USIP’s Muslim World Initiative, this volume embraces that pluralism while identifying points of convergence and difference that together point to innovative ways to improve U.S.-Muslim relations and promote Muslim-world peacebuilding.
Contributors include: Mohammed Abu-Nimer • Judy Barsalou • Dorina A. Bekoe • Daniel Brumberg • Iris Glosemeyer • Pierre Hazan • Steven Heydemann • Qamar-ul Huda • Thomas H. Johnson • John W. Limbert • Abdeslam Maghraoui • Jonathan Morrow • Ahmad S. Moussalli • Hesham Sallam • Dina Shehata • David R. Smock • Mohammad Masoom Stanekzai • Annette Weber • Mona Yacoubian
In the face of overwhelming attention to extremist movements and the fundamentalist Islam they often espouse, exploration of peacemaking and conflict resolution in Muslim communities is especially timely. Crescent and Dove looks at the relationship between contemporary Islam and peacemaking by tackling the diverse interpretations, concepts, and problems in the field of Islamic peacemaking.
Although Islamic law requires followers to preserve and protect life, and peacemaking efforts arise in Muslim communities everywhere, those who advocate for Islamic principles of nonviolence and peacebuilding, as well as traditional methods of conflict resolution, face serious challenges. Writing from their perspective as Muslim scholars and peacebuilding practitioners, the contributors offer critical perspectives on what works, what opportunities exist, and what areas are fertile for effective peacebuilding efforts. Their experience and analysis demonstrate that fostering a culture of peace in Muslim communities and building effective conflict resolution practices must occur within an Islamic framework and must engage Muslim leaders.
Crescent and Dove addresses both theory and practice by delving into the intellectual heritage of Islam to discuss historical examples of addressing conflict in Islam and exploring the practical challenges of contemporary peacemaking in Arab countries, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and Indonesia. These groundbreaking essays offer possibilities for nonviolent interventions, peacemaking, the implementation of human rights, the reinterpretation of texts, peace education instruction, and employing successful mediation, negotiation, and conflict resolution skills in an Islamic context.
Every summer since 1993, the woods of Maine have witnessed a remarkable attempt to plant the idea of peace in the hearts and minds of the next generation of Middle East leaders. For three weeks, 300 Arab and Israeli teenagers leave behind the violence and hatred ingrained in their homelands to meet their “enemies” face to face. At times it’s an emotionally wrenching process, but it can produce surprising friendships and an enduring belief in coexistence.
Seeds of Peace makes the most of the adaptability and enthusiasm of youth, creating a secure environment in which teenagers—supported by trained counselors—can dare to argue with and play alongside one another, to challenge preconceptions, and to envisage a peaceful Middle East. The author vividly describes the camp experience and follows the youngsters’ return home, where despite criticism from friends and families many of them continue to promote Arab-Israeli coexistence.
This highly engaging and accessible account of peacemaking in action also includes photographs and feature boxes that help bring alive the complex issues involved.
Generals in the Cabinet Room has been awarded the Lt. Col. Meir and Rachel Tshetshik Prize for Strategic Studies on Israel's Security by the Institute for National Security Studies at Tel Aviv University, March 2008.
In what is certain to become a landmark study, Israel’s foremost analyst of civil-military relations identifies and investigates a dramatic shift of power within Israel’s political system. Where once the military was usually the servant of civilian politicians, today, argues Yoram Peri, generals lead the way when it comes to foreign and defense policymaking. The implications for Israeli-Palestinian relations, for Israeli democracy, and indeed for other democracies are profound.
Generals in the Cabinet Room offers unparalleled insights into the workings of Israel’s military-political complex over the past fifteen years. Drawing on extensive literature (much of it in Hebrew and thus largely unknown outside of Israel) and hundreds of interviews with leading players, Peri explains how Israel’s prolonged experience of low-intensity conflict and political crisis has enabled the military establishment to acquire unprecedented influence, shaping Israeli policy toward the Oslo process and the al-Aqsa intifada.
Sophisticated, authoritative, and evenhanded, Generals in the Cabinet Room presents scholars and analysts with a new model of civil-military relations and a new depth of understanding of the Israeli case. At the same time, the volume’s fluid style, colorful anecdotes, and fascinating vignettes make it accessible to a general readership.
As the United States and NATO prepare to withdraw their troops from Afghanistan in 2014, the question remains as to what sort of political settlement the Afghanistan government and the Taliban can reach in order to achieve sustainable peace. If all parties are willing to strike a deal, how might the negotiations be structured, and what might the shape of that deal be? Getting It Right in Afghanistan addresses the real drivers of the insurgency and how Afghanistan's neighbors can contribute to peace in the region.
A recurring theme throughout the volume is the complex, multiactor conflict environment in Afghanistan and the resulting need for more inclusive political arrangements. The first set of chapters focus on internal political dynamics and Afghan political actors' views on a peace process. The second section covers Afghanistan's neighbors and their role in shaping the country's internal politics. Efforts to date to implement a peace and reconciliation process for Afghanistan are covered in the final section. Taken together, the book conveys the complexity and challenge of building an enduring and stable political consensus in Afghanistan's fragmented environment.
Since beginning work in Afghanistan in 2002, the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP) has been informing policy through accurate, clear analysis of the conflict that could shape a negotiated settlement. Comprising a collection of its analysis from 2002 to the present, Getting It Right in Afghanistan offers valuable insights to the policymakers charged with developing a new course of action for contributing to peace in Afghanistan and regional stability.