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Fifteen years after winning independence in 1975, Mozambique was wracked by insurgency, devastated by drought, and battered by conflicts with its neighbors. A less auspicious beginning for a new nation could hardly have been imagined.
But the signing of the 1992 peace agreement led to a new beginning. And a team of mediators, operating outside the framework of traditional diplomacy, helped the parties along the path of peace and reconciliation.
This first-hand account of the Mozambique mediations offers intriguing details that illustrate the complexity of the multi-track mediation process. Hume, who was a participant observer in the Rome-based peace talks, relates the stages of the process to the principles of conflict management, negotiation, and mediation in a clear and graceful style. He delineates the separate roles played by the parties themselves (the government and RENAMO), the outside governments that intervened, and the mediators, with a special focus on the unique element in this peace process: the involvement of a private voluntary organization, the Community of Sant'Egidio.
This compelling story of the Mozambican peace process also provides useful lessons for addressing other hostilities in Africa, the Balkans, and the emerging polities of the former Soviet republics.
This penetrating study of successful mediation in a half-dozen violent conflicts across the African continent focuses on a hitherto neglected dimension of mediation and the motivations of the parties in conflict—and of the mediators themselves—in initiating the mediation option.
The "problem" of many journalistic accounts and scholarly analyses of conflict mediation is that they detail the mediation process in full swing but have largely neglected the crucial phase of mediators' entry into the destructive and disturbing mass violence in Burundi, Rwanda, the Congo, Sudan, and West Africa and the border conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
This collaboration of renowned scholars and a practitioner in conflict management and African politics seeks to draw wide-ranging and timely conclusions on the early stages of mediation from six case studies.
Success in international mediation hinges on the skill, style, and methods of the mediator. This volume explores international mediation through the lens of Ambassador Jan Eliasson, an international go-between with a remarkable track record.
Authors Svensson and Wallensteen contend that international mediators’ styles vary in four dimensions—scope, method, mode, and focus—and that the mandate mediators receive strongly determines the style they adopt. The authors draw lessons for the peacemaking process from their examination of how Eliasson entered, prepared, pursued, and finally ended his mediation efforts.
Svensson and Wallensteen evaluate Eliasson’s role in six cases: two missions on the Iran-Iraq conflict; two cases of humanitarian diplomacy, in Burma/Myanmar and in Sudan; and two cases of internal armed conflicts, in Nagorno-Karabakh and in Darfur. Analyzing the role of the mediator in each of these instances offers insight into the constraints mediators face and outcomes they may achieve in other scenarios. The authors conclude with ten implications for mediation research and practice.
As a special feature of this volume, the authors incorporate excerpts from extensive interviews and diary entries from Jan Eliasson on his mediation experiences.
An illustrious cast of practitioners here describe their personal experiences in working to bring peace in significant conflicts across four continents. As James Baker, Richard Holbrooke, Max van der Stoel, Alvaro de Soto, Aldo Ajello, and others make clear, the mediator must operate in an environment of daunting complexity, insecurity, and uncertainty. Whether sequestered in Norway or zigzagging across Africa, the mediator can take nothing for granted—not participants, agendas, or timetables—in the struggle to sustain and advance the peace process.
And just to make things more complicated, each conflict now typically attracts several independent mediators. Indeed, coordinating third party mediators is like herding cats—difficult if not impossible.
In each of the two dozen cases examined in this volume, mediation was a multiparty effort, involving a range of actors—individuals, states, international organizations, and NGOs—working simultaneously or sequentially. These vivid accounts attest to the crucial importance of coordinating and building upon the efforts of other players. They also illuminate the opportunities and problems presented by different entry points of mediation—from conflict prevention, through negotiation during active conflict, to post-settlement implementation and peacebuilding—and by different kinds of leverage, levels of engagement, and objectives.
This volume was developed by the same editors who were responsible for USIP Press's highly successful 1996 publication Managing Global Chaos and is intended as a follow-on to that book. In their feedback on the 1996 volume, readers requested additional resources, especially case studies that reflect real, hands-on experience in complex settings. Not only will these cases illustrate how multiparty mediation works or does not work, but they should also stimulate further work on the special requirements and best practices of the field, promote a dialogue among practitioners themselves as well as between academics and practitioners, and lead to unique insights, new understandings, and alternative approaches that can be applied to future mediations.
The editors have framed the volume with discussions that link the practitioner cases to the scholarly literature on mediation, thereby situating the case studies in terms of theory while also drawing lessons for both scholars and practitioners that can help guide future endeavors.
In April 2002, Venezuela appeared to be on the brink of civil war. The Venezuelan military removed President Hugo Chavez Frias from power, only to reinstall him after an outpouring of support from the Venezuelan people and after condemnations from the international community. Feeling vulnerable and shocked by the coup, President Chavez took an unusual step to defuse a social and political conflict. He invited Jimmy Carter and later the Organization of American States and the United Nations Development Program to facilitate a dialogue between the Venezuelan government and its opposition—a dialogue that lasted two years (2002–2004).
International Mediation in Venezuela analyzes the effort of the Carter Center and the broader international community to prevent violent conflict, to reconcile a deeply divided society, and to preserve democratic processes. From their perspective as facilitators of the intervention and as representatives of the Carter Center, Jennifer McCoy and Francisco Diez present an insider account of mediation at the national and international level.
The authors describe the historical roots and nature of the conflict, and they provide insight to the main domestic actors. The volume analyzes the Carter Center’s interventions at the elite level as facilitators of multiple negotiations; the peacebuilding initiatives that the Center promoted together with many Venezuelans; and the involvement of the international community.
The volume examines missed opportunities and unintended consequences of many interventions and identifies lessons learned. This case study serves as a source of experience for practitioners in similar situations, a scholarly evaluation of conflict prevention efforts in the Venezuelan context, and a rich ground for theory building in conflict prevention, peacebuilding, and international relations.
During the past decade or so, Africa has been beset by an extraordinarily high number of wars. Indeed, some two to three million people died because of Africa’s warefare in the 1980’s alone.
That heavy burden of war, most of it originating internally, has been accompanied by frequent external involvement, both in terms of military intervention and through efforts to promote conflict resolution, usually by mediation.
This volume focuses on the role and effectiveness of external intervention in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily during the 1980’s. The authors include a range of Western and African scholars and policymakers with extensive experience in Africa.
The richly detailed case studies examine Angola and Namibia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Mozambique, and Sudan. Additional essays assess the role of the OAU and summarize French, British, and Belgium military involvement. An afterword by former diplomat Chester Crocker offers several guidelines for promoting peace-making and peacekeeping on the African continent in the future.
Managing the Mediation Process offers an overview of the process of mediating interstate and intrastate conflicts. Each of its six chapters covers a different step in the process, identifying what needs to be done at that step and how best to accomplish it:
• Assess the Conflict
• Ensure Mediator Readiness
• Ensure Conflict Ripeness
• Conduct Track-I Mediation
• Encourage Track-II Dialogue
• Construct a Peace Agreement
Consolidating the practical wisdom of managing a mediation process into an easily digestible format, this handbook is designed to help mediators identify areas where they may need more research or preparation, as well as options and strategies relevant to the particular case on which they are working. Examples from past mediation efforts are provided.
Managing the Mediation Process is the first of six handbooks in The Peacemaker’s Toolkit series and deals largely with Track-I efforts. Each handbook in the series addresses a particular facet of the work of mediating violent conflicts, including such topics as negotiating with terrorists, managing public information, the impact of international tribunals on a peace process, property restitution, constitution making, assessing and enhancing ripeness, debriefing a mediation effort, and Track II peacemaking among others.
Those who mediate international conflicts must communicate publicly with a wide variety of audiences, from governments and rebel forces to local and international media, NGOs and IGOs, divided communities and diasporas.
Managing Public Information in a Mediation Process helps mediators identify and develop the resources and strategies they need to reach these audiences. It highlights essential information tasks and functions, discusses key challenges and opportunities, and provides expert guidance on effective approaches. Examples from past mediations illustrate how various strategies have played out in practice.
The handbook sets out six steps that can be undertaken by mediators and their information teams before, during, and after peace negotiations:
• Analyze the Information Environment
• Plan Early for Information Needs
• Design a Public Information Strategy
• Implement a Communication Program
• Engage Civil Society
• Monitor, Evaluate, Assess
Following Managing a Mediation Process, this volume is the second handbook in the Peacemaker’s Toolkit series. Each handbook addresses a particular facet of the work of mediating violent conflicts, including such topics as negotiating with terrorists, constitution making, assessing and enhancing ripeness, and Track-II peacemaking.
Why do some peace settlements endure whereas others collapse into violence almost as soon as they are signed?
Focusing on intrastate conflicts in which third parties have played prominent roles, Hampson argues that durable settlements depend on sustained third-party engagement not only during the negotiation phase but throughout the implementation process. He provides detailed yet succinct accounts of five justly renowned cases (Cyprus, Namibia, Angola, El Salvador, Cambodia), explores the interplay of key variables, and describes rationales for action and lessons about how best to act.
Can power sharing prevent violent ethnic conflict? And if so, how can the international community best promote that outcome?
In this concise volume, Timothy Sisk defines power sharing as practices and institutions that result in broad-based governing coalitions generally inclusive of all major ethnic groups. He identifies the principal approaches to power sharing, including autonomy, federations, and proportional electoral systems.
In addition, Sisk highlights the problems with various power-sharing approaches and practices that have been raised by scholars and practitioners alike, and the instances where power-sharing experiments have succeeded and where they have failed. Finally, he offers some guidance to policymakers as they ponder power-sharing arrangements.